Critical thinking, as it pertains to teaching and learning,
can be considered an open-minded process of
discovery and understanding
analysis and application
synthesis and evaluation.
These three groupings and their six components reflect B. S. Bloom’s (et al-1956)hierarchical taxonomy or breakdown of cognitive educational objectives.
Teaching students to be critical thinkers presumes an environment
where learners, building upon their knowledge and experience set, strive to understand how data and information can be used to develop, recognize, and/or critique general patterns of knowledge. The facility to work in patterns may be affected by the learner's "intelligence" as defined by Howard Gardner in three groupings:
object related: visual/spatial, body motion/kinesthetic, naturalist
As an alternative to outlining or environment for brainstorming
Learning portfolios/records of progress
Develop opportunities for individuals and groups to develop documents
that reflect learning progress over time (minutes/journals; blogs/media productions; speeches/presentations)
Classroom space accommodates interaction
between small and larger groups of students as well as the teacher
Seize the moment/Gestalt/ah ha
Intentionally attack a current controversy or issue
Strive to develop mutual understanding of the issues on both sides
as well as the alternative processes of arriving at resolution(s)
with examples out of the students' own experiences to correlate concepts and applications
Provide feedback to the learner; considerations:
Were the objectives and standards understood?
What external events influenced behavior/outcome?
What will feedback contribute to the learner's self-understanding and development?
Is feedback based upon the results/answers/etc. or how they were developed (process)?